Harnessing Serious Games For Developing Indonesian Elementary School Students’ Critical Thinking Attitudes
Keywords:Critical thinking attitudes, serious games, digital games, elementary school students
Critical thinking is one of the essential skills required in all fields in the 21st century. As a response to this need, one of the efforts that Indonesian policy-makers make is through developing Curriculum 2013 which is designed to equip students with the ability to think critically. However, instilling critical thinking skills from an early age without developing an individual’s critical thinking attitudes is not a wise choice. It is because possessing critical thinking skills without having a willingness to use them will be less beneficial. This article presents the results of a literature study on how serious games, as a product of current advancement of digital technology, can be utilised to develop three critical thinking attitudes, namely, willingness to plan, the attitude of flexibility, and consensus-seeking attitude. Moreover, this article also presents three strategies that can be used to implement serious games in Indonesian elementary school context, namely, using ADDIE (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) model as a framework for developing serious games, adapting the existing serious games with BYOD (bring your own device) model, and promoting parental and family involvement.
Abt, C. C. (1970). Serious games. New York: Viking Press.
Alcid, A. S., Bandril, L. B. P., De Guzman, A. E., & Lopez, L. J. C. (2017). Analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a serious game designed to inform users on environmental issues. International Journal of Computing Sciences Research, 1(1), 11-23. doi:10.25147/ijcsr.2017.001.1.01
Aldoobie, N. (2015). ADDIE model. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 5(6), 68-72. Retrieved from http://www.aijcrnet.com/journals/Vol_5_No_6_December_2015/10.pdf
Asyari, M., Al Muhdhar, M. H. I., Susilo, H., & Ibrohim. (2016). Improving critical thinking skills through the integration of problem-based learning and group investigation. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 5(1), 36-44. doi:10.1108/IJLLS-10-2014-0042
Aynsley, S. A., Nathawat, K., & Crawford, R. M. (2018). Evaluating student perceptions of using a game-based approach to aid learning: Braincept. Higher Education Pedagogies, 3(1), 70-81. doi:10.1080/23752696.2018.1435296
Baek, Y., Ko, R., & Marsh, T. R. (Eds.). (2014). Trends and applications of serious gaming and social media. New York: Springer.
Balea, J. (2016). The latest stats in web and mobile in Indonesia (infographic). Retrieved from https://www.techinasia.com/indonesia-web-mobile-statistics-we-are-social
Bluemink, J., Hamalainen, R., Manninen, T., & Jarvela, S. (2010). Group-level analysis on multiplayer game collaboration: How do the individuals shape the group interaction? Interactive Learning Environments, 18(4), 365-383. doi:10.1080/10494820802602444
Braad, E., Žavcer, G., & Sandovar, A. (2016). Processes and models for serious game design and development. In R. Dörner, S. Göbel, M. Kickmeier-Rust, M. Masuch, & K. Zweig (Eds.), Entertainment Computing and Serious Games: International GI-Dagstuhl Seminar 15283, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, July 5-10, 2015, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 92-118). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
British Broadcasting Corporation. (2002). Video games stimulate learning. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/education/1879019.stm
Butcher, K. R., Runburg, M., & Altizer, R. (2017). Dino Lab: Designing and developing an educational game for critical thinking. In R. Zheng & M. K. Gardner (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Serious Games for Educational Applications (pp. 115-148). Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global.
Chalak, A., & Ahmadi, B. (2016). Integration of serious games in teaching English as a foreign language to Iranian children. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 4(15), 77-87. Retrieved from http://jfl.iaun.ac.ir/article_41753_be5e1d3dbb8199bf4a0c38c93a9ed856.pdf
Cheng, G., Guan, Y., & Chau, J. (2016). An empirical study towards understanding user acceptance of bring your own device (BYOD) in higher education. Australasian journal of educational technology, 32(4), 1-17. doi:10.14742/ajet.2792
Curtis, D. D., & Lawson, M. J. (2002). Computer adventure games as problem-solving environments. International Education Journal, 3(4), 43-56. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b563/1f037a8abf360694c21f340684132918be74.pdf.
Emmerich, K., & Bockholt, M. (2016). Serious games evaluation: Processes, models, and concepts. In R. Dörner, S. Göbel, M. Kickmeier-Rust, M. Masuch, & K. Zweig (Eds.), Entertainment computing and serious games: International GI-Dagstuhl seminar 15283, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, July 5-10, 2015, revised selected papers (pp. 265-283). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
Ennis, R. H. (1985). A logical basis for measuring critical thinking skills. Educational leadership, 43(2), 44-48. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/80a7/c7d4a98987590751df4b1bd9adf747fd7aaa.pdf.
Fuad, N. M., Zubaidah, S., Mahanal, S., & Suarsini, E. (2017). Improving junior high schools' critical thinking skills based on test three different models of learning. International Journal of Instruction, 10(1), 101-116. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1125163.pdf.
García, F. B., García-Martínez, S., Navarrete-Ibañez, E. M., & Cervelló-Donderis, M. J. (2013). Designing serious games for getting transferable skills in training settings. Interaction Design and Architecture(s) Journal, 19, 47-62. Retrieved from http://www.mifav.uniroma2.it/inevent/events/idea2010/doc/19_4.pdf.
Hadi, S. A., Susantini, E., & Agustini, R. (2018). Training of students’ critical thinking skills through the implementation of a modified free inquiry model. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 947(1), 012063. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/947/1/012063
Hakim, A., Liliasari, L., Kadarohman, A., & Syah, Y. M. (2016). Improvement of student critical thinking skills with the natural product mini project laboratory learning. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry, 16(3), 322-328. Retrieved from http://pdm-mipa.ugm.ac.id/ojs/index.php/ijc/article/view/1153.
Häkkinen, P., Bluemink, J., Juntunen, M., & Laakkonen, I. (2012). Multiplayer 3D game in supporting team-building activities in a work organization. Paper presented at the 2012 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT).
Halpern, D. F. (2003). Thought and knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking (4th ed.). Mahwah, N.J, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Hämäläinen, R., Oksanen, K., & Häkkinen, P. (2008). Designing and analyzing collaboration in a scripted game for vocational education. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(6), 2496-2506. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2008.03.010
Iqbal, M., Machbub, C., & Prihatmanto, A. S. (2015). Educational game design using the 7 steps for designing serious games method (case study: Mathematical subject on comparison and scale material for 7th grade junior high school). Paper presented at the 2015 4th International Conference on Interactive Digital Media (ICIDM). doi:10.1109/IDM.2015.7516346
Jeuring, J., van Rooij, R., & Pronost, N. (2014). The 5/10 method: A method for designing educational games. In A. De Gloria (Ed.), Games and Learning Alliance (pp. 364-369). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. (2013). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia nomor 81A tahun 2013 tentang implementasi kurikulum [Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia number 81A year 2013 about the implementation of curriculum]. Retrieved from https://luk.staff.ugm.ac.id/atur/bsnp/Permendikbud81A-2013ImplementasiK13Lengkap.pdf.
Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. (2014). Konsep dan implementasi kurikulum 2013 [Concept and implementation of curriculum 2013]. Retrieved from https://www.kemdikbud.go.id/kemdikbud/dokumen/Paparan/Paparan%20Wamendik.pdf.
Luke, J., Stein, J., Foutz, S., & Adams, M. (2007). Research to practice: Testing a tool for assessing critical thinking in art museum programs. Journal of museum education, 32, 123-136. doi:10.1080/10598650.2007.11510564
Maher, D., & Twining, P. (2017). Bring your own device--A snapshot of two Australian primary schools. Educational Research, 59(1), 73-88. doi:10.1080/00131881.2016.1239509
Mataniari, R. (2017). Research skill development (RSD)-Integrated online report for critical thinking skills. Retrieved from https://www.adelaide.edu.au/rsd/i-melt/papers/MataniariIMELT2017paper.pdf.
McFarlane, A., Sparrowhawk, A., & Heald, Y. (2002). Report on the educational use of games. Retrieved from http://questgarden.com/84/74/3/091102061307/files/teem_gamesined_full.pdf.
McGonigal, J. (2011). Reality is broken: Why games make us better and how they can change the world. New York: Penguin Press.
Michael, D., & Chen, S. (2006). Serious games: games that educate, train and inform. Boston, Mass.: Thomson Course Technology.
Molenda, M. (2015). In Search of the elusive ADDIE model. Performance Improvement, 54(2), 40-42. doi:10.1002/pfi.21461
Nafi’ah, I., & Prasetyo, A. P. B. (2015). Analisis kebiasaan berpikir kritis siswa saat pembelajaran IPA kurikulum 2013 berpendekatan scientific [Analysis of students' critical thinking in science subjects which are based on curriculum 2013 with scientific approach]. Journal Of Biology Education, 4(1), 53-59. Retrieved from https://journal.unnes.ac.id/sju/index.php/ujbe/article/view/5234
Newzoo. (2017). The Indonesian gamer. 2017. Retrieved from https://newzoo.com/insights/infographics/the-indonesian-gamer-2017/
Panitz, T. (1999). The case for student centered instruction via collaborative learning paradigms. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED448444.
Papanastasiou, G., Drigas, A., & Skianis, C. (2017). Serious games in preschool and primary education: Benefits and impacts on curriculum course syllabus. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 12(01), 44-56. doi:10.3991/ijet.v12i01.6065
Prameswari, N. S., Suharto, M., & Prabowo, T. (2017). The importance of equating parent’s perceptions with children’s hobby in using Android-based applications as a learning media. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, 3(2), 1660-1679. doi:10.20319/pijss.2017.32.16601679
Prensky, M. (2006). "Don't bother me Mom, I'm learning!": How computer and video games are preparing your kids for twenty-first century success and how you can help! (1st ed.). St. Paul, Minn.: Paragon House.
Putra, P., & Iqbal, M. (2016). Implementation of serious games inspired by Baluran national park to improve students’ critical thinking ability. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 5(1), 101-108. Retrieved from https://journal.unnes.ac.id/nju/index.php/jpii/article/view/5798
Romero, M., Usart, M., & Ott, M. (2015). Can serious games contribute to developing and sustaining 21st century skills? Games and Culture, 10(2), 148-177. doi:10.1177/1555412014548919
Saavedra, A. R., & Opfer, V. D. (2012). Learning 21st-century skills requires 21st-century teaching. Phi Delta Kappan Magazine, 94(2), 8-13. doi:10.1177/003172171209400203
Sahrir, M. S., & Alias, N. A. (2012). A design and development approach to researching online Arabic vocabulary games learning in IIUM. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 67(C), 360-369. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.339
Scholz, C. (2016). A study of the application of a bring your own device strategy in an elementary school. (Doctoral dissertation), Walden University, Minneapolis, Minnesota, US.
Shih, J.-L., & Su, H.-Y. (2008). Analyzing children’s cognitive activities in digital problem-solving learning games “William Adventure”: An in-depth case study. ICCE 2008 Proceedings, 651-658. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2a9c/03fb820abd645480201ed686eca7b8fb639f.pdf.
Smit, D. W. (1989). Some Difficulties with Collaborative Learning. Journal of Advanced Composition, 9(1/2), 45-58. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/20865670
Song, Y. (2014). "Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)" for seamless science inquiry in a primary school. Computers & Education, 74, 50-60. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2014.01.005
Southgate, E., Budd, J., & Smith, S. (2017). Press play for learning: A framework to guide serious computer game use in the classroom. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 42(7), 1-13. doi:10.14221/ajte.2017v42n7.1
Sweller, J. (1994). Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design. Learning and Instruction, 4(4), 295-312. doi:10.1016/0959-4752(94)90003-5
Ulicsak, M., & Williamson, B. (2010). Computer games and learning. Retrieved from https://www.nfer.ac.uk/publications/FUTL01/FUTL01.pdf
Veen, W., & Vrakking, B. (2006). Homo zappiens: Growing up in a digital age. London: Network Continuum Education.
Wagner, T. (2008). The global achievement gap: Why even our best schools don’t teach the new survival skills our children need— and what we can do about it (1st ed.). New York: Basic Books.
Zakaria, M. N., Salleh, N. A., & Nawi, M. N. M. (2016). Impact of serious game towards foreign worker in safety induction course in malaysian construction industry. Technical Journal of the Faculty of Engineering, 39(9), 1-8. doi:10.21311/001.39.9.01
Zetriuslita, H., Ariawan, R., & Nufus, H. (2016). Students' critical thinking ability: Description based on academic level and gender. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(12), 154-164. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1099476.pdf.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 NATURALISTIC : Jurnal Kajian Penelitian Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Open Access Policy
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.
This journal is open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to users or / institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to full text articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or author. This is in accordance with Budapest Open Access Initiative.