The Importance of the Role of Parents in Ability Toilet Training for Pre-School Children
Keywords:The role of parents, Toilet training, Preschooler
Pre-school age children have not been able to take care of themselves such as wearing clothes, bathing, eating, using the toilet and so on. Parents have an active role in preschool children about toilet training by training their children's ability to urinate and defecate to the toilet. the purpose of organizing this service activity is to provide knowledge and understanding to parents about the importance of toilet training for pre-school children. The method used is counseling. The target of this service is parents who have pre-school age children reaching 20 people. The stages applied in the implementation of this activity are preparation, implementation, and evaluation of service activities. Based on the results of the activity evaluation, it was found that parents felt the benefits of this service activity and they had knowledge and understanding of how and the importance of the role of parents in toilet training abilities in children. It can be said that this service activity is able to equip parents in accompanying their children during the pre-school period, especially regarding toilet training.
Pre-school-age children have not been able to take care of themselves such as wearing clothes, bathing, eating, using the toilet, and so on. Parents have an active role in preschool children about toilet training by training their children's ability to urinate and defecate on the toilet. The purpose of holding this service activity is to provide knowledge and understanding to parents about the importance of toilet training for pre-school children. The method used is counseling. The target of this service is parents who have 20 children of pre-school age. The stages applied in the implementation of this activity are preparation, implementation, and evaluation of service activities. Based on the results of the activity evaluation, it was found that parents felt the benefits of this service activity and they had the knowledge and understanding of how and the importance of the role of parents in toilet training abilities in children. It can be concluded that this service activity is able to equip parents in accompanying their children during the pre-school period, especially regarding toilet training.
Keywords: The role of parents, Toilet training, Preschooler
The family in relation to children is identified as a place or nurturing institution that can give love. The fulfillment of emotions and love between parents and children will be useful in determining the behavior of children in the future. One of the tasks of the family towards the growth and development of children is to form independence. The influencing factor is the role of parents (Alwafi Ridho Subarkah, 2018).
Pre-school age children are children aged between 3-6 years where at this age children are still not socializing with others, cannot take care of themselves, for example wearing clothes, bathing, eating, using the toilet and so on. In Indonesia, the number of pre-school aged children is 37.92 percent, while in Banten province it is 30.63 percent (Ministry of Women's Empowerment and Child Protection and the Central Statistics Agency, 2019).
Toilet training is a developmental task that impacts families with young children. All healthy children were eventually potty trained, and completed the task without medical intervention. Most research on toilet training is descriptive, although some is evidence-based. Mastery of the developmental skills required for potty training occurs after 24 months of age. Girls usually finish training earlier than boys (Choby et al., 2008).
The active role of parents in pre-school children regarding toilet training is that parents must begin to train their children's ability to urinate and defecate into the toilet. Parents must be patient and understand their child's readiness to start teaching using the toilet. Parents must also have positive support for their children so that children are successful in toilet training. For example, do not always use diapers on children, parents should be ready to take their children when they want to defecate and urinate to the toilet (Soetjiningsih, 2014).
In addition, the role of parents is a series of behaviors that are expected by someone according to the social position given both formally and informally. Children experience many changes both physically and mentally at 3-5 years of preschool age with the characteristics of developing self-concept, curiosity, imagination, learning to weigh tastes, developing ways of thinking, developing language skills and the emergence of behavior. At this time parents must be patient and understand their child's readiness to start teaching the use of the toilet and provide positive support.
The advantage if parents succeed in carrying out their roles well, namely the child becomes independent, does not depend on others, is confident and behaves well. Meanwhile, if the role of parents is not carried out properly, the most common impact is that children tend to be more careless, become spoiled, like to make fuss, emotional, lack of curiosity in every new thing and arbitrarily in carrying out daily activities. Herawati Mansur, 2011).
The problem that arises from the role of the family in this incident is that many preschool-aged children wet the bed, defecate and urinate in any place, even up to school age due to toilet training failure. This will have a negative impact on the development of the child in the future. The impact caused by parents who do not apply toilet training to their children is that children become stubborn and difficult to manage. Problems that are influenced by the role of parents besides that children are not independent and still carry the habit of bedwetting to a large extent even there are still crying when urinating in their pants for fear of being scolded. Toilet training that is not taught from an early age will make it increasingly difficult for parents to teach children when children get older and things that need to be considered in the role of the family teach children to say typical words related to defecation and urination, encourage children to do routines to the bathroom, do not scold children if they fail to do toilet training as well as the role of other people. Parents must teach toilet training techniques to monitor problems that arise (Rahayu, 2017).
Currently, parents do not play an active role and do not understand their children's readiness, because some parents are busy with their work or are lazy in taking their children to the toilet. This busyness makes parents do not want to bother in taking care of their children. Parents prefer to use a practical method by using diapers so that mothers do not have difficulties when their children want to defecate or urinate. The problem that arises is that many toddler age children wet the bed, defecate and urinate in any place, even up to school age due to toilet training failure. The purpose of implementing Community Service is to increase parents' knowledge and understanding of the importance of toilet training for pre-school children.
The method of implementing Community Service (PkM) activities with the theme of the importance of the role of parents in toilet training skills for pre-school children by holding face-to-face counseling and paying attention to health protocols starting from preparing hand washing equipment, using masks, and maintaining distance. Community Service participants are residents of Kp. Gembor has pre-school-age children. In order to see the added value and usefulness of service activities, before and after service activities, participants will be asked to fill out a questionnaire. Figure 1 below is the stages of implementing extension activities.
Figure 1. Implementation Stages
Service activities are carried out from 9 to 23 August 2021. This Community Service activity is carried out with the steps of obtaining an official permit from the local government, Preparation of Material and Place Making, Implementation of Community Service activities and Evaluation of Community Service activities.
Implementation of Community Service with the theme of the importance of the role of parents in toilet training abilities for pre-school children, starting with the official permission letter from the Chair of the Yatsi School of Health Research and Community Service Institute Number 132/LPPM-STIKes Yatsi/VIII/2021 dated 4 August 2021, the Community Service Team then went to the Head of the RT in the area. From the meeting, the Head of the RT and the Community Service team agreed that the socialization activity would be carried out on Monday, August 23, 2021, from 10.00 to 12.00 WIB.
After obtaining permission and a schedule from the head of the local RT, the Community Service team prepared materials in the form of PPT which would be submitted to participants. In addition, the service team prepares the facilities and infrastructure that will be used during the process of implementing the activities
The service was carried out at the local Posyandu with a total of 20 participants. Before and after participating in the activity, participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire given by the service team. The implementation of the activity went smoothly and received a positive response from the service participants. Indications of a positive response from service participants can be seen from the activeness of asking questions and the enthusiasm of participants in participating in and responding to service activities. The material presented is material that has been systematically arranged.
The evaluation stage is carried out to determine whether there is added value to the knowledge gained by service participants and to assess the usefulness of carrying out activities. The following are the results of the knowledge of the service participants before and after the implementation of the activity.
Figure 2. Knowledge of the role of parents in toilet training skills in pre-school
Figure 3. Percentage of Activity Benefit
From Figure 3 above, most of the participants stated that the service activities were very useful, as many as 16 participants (80%). The implementation of this Community Service (PPM) activity is a tangible form of the contribution of universities to the community as well as a bridge that connects the world of education and society. This activity is one of the university's tri dharma activities.
Parents play a very important role in the success of toilet training in pre-school age children, this is evidenced by research conducted by Mendur, 2018 which states that the role of parents is more influential on the success of toilet training in children. The results were obtained from some parents still allowing their children to use diapers and wet the bed at night because being sorry to wake up can hinder the success of toilet training. The treatment of parents who are not good to children caused by their affection can cause parents to be less good at carrying out their roles (Mendur, 2018). Carrying out the role of a good parent usually has many problems in the household or work problems. This can cause parents to tire easily and experience stress, so parents cannot carry out their roles properly (Supartini, 2008).
Knowledge from parents is one of the most supportive factors in the success of toilet training in children. where the higher the level of knowledge of parents, the better the tendency to teach toilet training, this is because the level of knowledge is able to make a person place himself in certain situations and the higher the level of knowledge of a person, the person will be able to place himself and be able to carry out his duties as a person. parents who are able to educate their children (Kyle & Carman, 2015).
According to (Damanik, 2019) parents who are busy also do not pay attention to the environment in their homes that looks dirty, so children are not comfortable with facilities for defecating and urinating. The problem that arises from this incident is that many preschool-aged children wet their bowels, defecate and urinate in any place, even up to school age due to the ineffectiveness of toilet training. How to practice toilet training According to (Maidartati, 2018) in toddlers, it is something that parents must do, considering that with this exercise, it is expected that children have their own abilities to urinate and defecate without feeling fear or anxiety so that children will experience growth and development according to the child's growth and development. The role of parents is good but toilet training for children is not good, it depends on the child himself. The readiness of the child was to see if the child is physically and biologically ready. Although the child has been taught continuously by the parents, the physical and psychological readiness of the child has not been possible, so it is difficult for the child to learn quickly about toilet training because every child is different in physical and psychological readiness. The role of parents who are not good and toilet training for children is not good this is caused by several factors, namely the age, education, and occupation of the parents. The good and bad role of parents can be caused by various factors, namely age, education, and work. Maternal age is also an indicator of maturity in decision-making that refers to each experience, where mothers who are old enough or aged 26-35 years will be more mature in their role and care for children but at that age mothers usually have many problems both at home and outside. Mendur, 2018).
Most parents, as many as 17 parents, do not know the things that need to be considered in the success of toilet training. Learning to use the toilet cannot be done until the child is able and willing. The child must learn to recognize these needs, learn to hold a large or small amount of water until he is on the toilet, and then release it. Most children are not ready either physiologically or psychologically to reach this stage by at least the middle of the second year. Most children, regardless of when their potty training attempt begins, are able to get it right by two and a half to three years of age. The earlier you train does not mean it will be more successful, but delaying the process will also provide an opportunity for conflict to arise (Rahayu Ningsih & Rizky, 2013).
Mother's behavior in the application of toilet training when the child is able to do toilet training correctly, the mother gives rewards in the form of praise, food, or objects that are liked by the child. This reward is a consequence and reinforcement of children's positive behavior in the application of toilet training (Koerniandaru, 2016).
According to (Damanik, 2019) preschool-aged children experience unsuccessful toilet training due to several influencing factors, namely motivation on parents' understanding of the importance of giving positive words in every child's development and stimulation that can affect the role of the family towards preschool age children.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This Community Service is carried out by a face-to-face service team with great attention to health protocols, starting from preparing hand sanitizer, distributing masks, and maintaining distance. In the implementation of the service, it was concluded that many parents did not understand the importance of the role of parents in the success of toilet training for pre-school children. In the process of presenting the material, participants were very enthusiastic and actively asked questions related to the material presented. Based on the evaluation results from this activity, it was found that there was an increase in parents' knowledge and understanding of the importance of toilet training for pre-school children. In addition, participants stated that this activity was very beneficial for the community, especially parents. It is hoped that in further service activities, they can practice and assist parents in carrying out their roles for the success of toilet training for pre-school children.
We thank God for the presence of Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala, for the guidance given so that this Community Service can run smoothly. This community service can be carried out properly with the support of various parties. Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala repays the kindness you deserve. Amen.
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